Covid Vaccine

The Problem of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement

Calvin Luther Martin, PhD*

Calvin Luther Martin, PhD*

January 27, 2021

I have several years of graduate training in immunology/molecular biology. In the 1980s, I was enrolled in the PhD program in immunology at the Waksman Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University. I didn’t complete the PhD in immunology because it interfered too much with my being, simultaneously, a Professor of History at Rutgers.  (My PhD is in history with a subfield in anthropology from the University of California.)

A word of caution

Antibody-Dependent Enhancement

Before getting the vaccine, be sure you are aware of an immunopathology (immune disease) called “antibody-dependent enhancement.”

Definition and Explanation:

In reacting either to an infection or a vaccine, your body makes antibodies of various types to a variety of proteins on the surface of the virus. Some of the antibodies will be neutralizing, meaning that when they bind to the virus they prevent the virus from getting inside human cells. Other antibodies can likewise bind to the virus, but not make any difference to the virus’s successful functioning. These are non-neutralizing antibodies.

The problem is that both types of antibodies can also bind with loose viral proteins, especially from a vaccine, or a subsequent exposure to another virus, or with proteins of similar shape on or in human cells themselves. When antibodies bind to a loose protein, this triggers what’s called an immune complex reaction.

Immune complexes tend to deposit in certain parts of the body, such as the joints and kidneys. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE) appears to be a damaging inflammatory reaction of one’s own antibodies against one’s own tissues or cells, again, provoked by antibodies binding to one’s tissues or by immune complexes being deposited.

The antibody/antigen reaction triggers other inflammatory cells in a cascade effect, leading to tissue and organ damage which can be very serious.

The two articles, below, warn of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement from the Covid vaccine. Both were published in credible, peer-reviewed science and clinical journals within the past 3 to 4 months.  The credentials of the authors are impeccable.  I have highlighted passages in both articles. (Scroll to the end of the second article to see my highlighting therein.)

Before you get the Covid vaccine, you would be wise to discuss Antibody-Dependent Enhancement with your physician.

The International Jour. of Clinical Practice
The International Jour. of Infectious Diseases

28 thoughts on “Covid Vaccine: The Problem of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement”

  1. In early November 2019 I came down with an illness that I never experienced in my 64 years on earth. It immediately hit my lungs and I felt like they were on fire. I had severe difficulty breathing.

    You might think I’m crazy, but I believe I had Covid. One of my fellow employees has good friends who are Chinese, and they came back a few weeks before that time, from China, near Wuhan, after visiting family. They all came back sick. My coworker got sick about 10 days later and wound up in the hospital, where she was put on oxygen and treated with antibiotics and steroids, both inhaled and by pill. She recovered. I treated myself at home immediately after getting symptoms, taking Avelox that belong to my sister, and prednisone that I had for another illness (poison ivy) the year before and I recovered, but to this day my lungs do not feel right, though I did have CT scan of my lungs and told they were fine.

    My question is, since we now know that this disease broke out in China much earlier than was reported, is it a stretch to think that it not only came into this country much sooner, but that I and my coworker were early casualties?
    Editor’s note: Not a stretch. Almost certainly you had Covid. Again, I am not a physician but, like you, I am intelligent, and I happen to have PhD-level training in molecular biology and immunology.

    As I write this, I am reeling from news I heard an hour ago. My handyman’s wife, 50 years old, died of a heart attack Saturday night at a party. She was healthy. No history of heart disease. Not overweight. She worked at the local pharmacy and she got all 3 Covid vaccine injections. Hmm.

    1. OMG! I am so sorry to hear that.

      I hope her doctor reported it to the CDC as an adverse reaction. Of course, they and the manufacturers will never admit it had anything to do with their “vaccine.”

      I’m not even sure if when people start dropping like flies from this “vaccine” they will admit it. I’m sure they’ll claim it is another variant to set people up for another round of vaccines. We seem to be in a vicious cycle that we’ll never get out of. Not when there is too much to gain financially and politically.

      I heard last night that the number of deaths and injury associated with this “vaccine” is more than all other vaccines combined, and had it been a vaccine for any other illness, and the makers not given immunity, it would have been pulled from the market long ago.

      Something else I heard over the weekend. Since the end of last year, over 40 new billionaires were created in the pharmaceutical industry selling this vaccine. That’s not to mention all those who are making money from investing in those companies, including FB and Twitter. Big Pharma is handing out money like candy to politicians right now–both parties–but primarily Democrats. Since the end of last year to now, they gave Biden over 8 million in campaign contributions. Seems that has more to do with why they are pushing this “vaccine” than caring about people’s health.

      Once again, I am so sorry for your friend’s untimely death. That really is tragic news.
      Editor’s note: Thank you for speaking from your heart. These are difficult times.

  2. Marshall Lentini

    There is no way out of this for the majority. After all, the majority are what it’s about for Gates.

    The unvaccinated “control group” will be so small and disenfranchised, it won’t matter if 25% of the vaccinated drop dead in unison–an overwhelming majority are committed to this fiction no matter how obviously retarded it becomes, and will adjust the narrative from that point on, just as they’ve been doing from day one.

  3. Thank you for posting this. I was very ill in January 2020 till nearly March. My doctor said it wasn’t the flu. Since then I’ve been in heart failure and am on more than one med for it, including a blood thinner.

    I’ve noticed that after visiting my husband in his nursing home I feel ill for a few days. Everyone there is vaccinated.

    The cardiologist suggested I get the jab and I told him I wanted to research it longer before making up my mind. Pretty sure I shouldn’t take it and will wait for more information.
    Editor’s reply: Thanks for posting this poignant and disturbing comment. I’m not a physician, as you know. I’m a historian who is wracking his brain to remember the molecular biology and immunology he took over 30 years ago in an effort to help people understand what’s going on. Added to this, I have taken to reading the relevant immunological literature on the disease and the vaccine. But I’m merely a half-baked scientist.

    Needless to say, though I’ll say it anyhow, I can’t advise you. (Not that you’re seeking my advice.) I wonder if physicians even understand the entire picture of what’s going on with the disease on the one hand, and the vaccine on the other. 

    Your remarks about feeling ill after visiting your husband’s nursing home are curious and disturbing.

    Be that as it may, I am wrapping up a lengthy analysis of graphene, which may or may not be in the vaccine. I expect to be posting it within a week or two. It may help you decide about getting the jab, since I discuss the vaccine at length, though merely from a biologist’s point of view.

    I am attaching a screenshot from the article I’m working on.

  4. Thank you for posting this. I had Covid19 back in March 2020 and have experienced long haul syndrome. I have been on the fence about getting the jab. I have struggled to find unbiased and accurate information. I have immunity issues and I get sick to my stomach whenever I search for a local jab. My gut feeling is telling me to not get vaccinated. I had an appointment to get the Johnson shot but it was pulled due to clotting issues the day of my appointment. I had to talk myself into getting the jab the first time but cannot screw up my courage again. I will continue to avoid crowds, wear my mask, and sanitize.

    1. Suzan Senerchia

      Diane, reach out to and look for “Contact a Physician” to get treatment for your long-haul symptoms.

      You don’t have to suffer when there are safe therapeutics which doctors have been using very successfully.

  5. Very interesting articles but at this juncture, as we are well into May with millions vaccinated, I have not witnessed any evidence of ADE. Has anyone seen this anywhere in the world?

    1. This is something you won’t notice right away. It takes months or longer. The next couple of flu seasons will tell but they’ll just make it out to be a new deadlier variant of the virus.

      1. Editor’s reply: Glad you mentioned this autopsy report. I have read it. The problem is that the source of the mRNA identified in the postmortem is mysterious: Is it from the man’s Covid infection or from the vaccine? This is the interesting question! The article argues that the vaccine conferred some degree of immunity to the virus, albeit not complete immunity. Basically, the authors argue that the vaccine mitigated some of the more severe effects of the virus. (It appears to me that this conclusion is mere conjecture on their part.)

        Stay tuned. If my research into the article convinces me that the mRNA was likely from the vaccine, I will definitely do an article on it.

        Click here for a PDF of the postmortem report.

      1. Interesting analysis of the data, although I wish more detail would be included with some of these. For instance, I would love to know the numbers in all categories (vaxxed, unvaxxed, partially vaxxed), broken down by age and co-morbidities. This would give a better understanding of the prevalence of ADE, as ADE is likely unbiased by age or health condition.

        If the unvaxxed deaths are primarily in the elderly or unhealthy, it would provide even more evidence to suggest ADE might be the culprit.

  6. I want to know the truth about the use of hydroxychloroquine as a preventative, as Dr. Fauci said in his article for the Virology Journal in 2005. Why did he ridicule President Trump for seeing clear benefits of using this as a preventative in March 2020? And has the FDA quietly re-authorized the use of HCQ as a preventative and HCQ cocktail with zinc Azithromycin?

    Is Dr. Fauci compromised by a monetary interest in the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing these vaccines?

    1. He is compromised by everything, and particularly global interests and has been from the start. This has aged well:

      “In March 2020, FDA allowed Fauci, I mean, Moderna, to skip the critical Phase 1 animal studies that led to a halt to human studies for SARS and MERS vaccines. That was a LONG time ago now (5 months). How many times over could Moderna (I mean, Fauci) have conducted the animal studies to detect pathogenic priming by now? Maybe they have! Certainly we would have heard of the results if they showed no disease enhancement. Come on, we may be—collectively—stupid, but we’re not dead. Yet.” Source:

  7. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    Leading pro-vaccine scientist, Geert Vanden Bossche, calls for global, mass Covid vaccinations to be stopped immediately.

    Geert Vanden Bossche Interview on The Highwire
    Published on Mar 12, 2021
    Mass Vaccination in a Pandemic – Benefits versus Risks – Interview with Geert Vanden Bossche

    Published on Mar 17, 2021
    SARS-CoV-2, Vaccination & Early Ambulatory Treatment – a Webinar with Geert Vanden Bossche, DVM, PHD, & Peter McCullough, MD, MPH.

    See important article and related comments

  8. ‘Cardozo and Veazy then show how informed consent forms for volunteer subjects in vaccine trials fail to meet the required ethical standards for informed consent. While ADE is mentioned, it is generally added at the end of the list of possible risks and its implications and identification are unlikely to be adequately understood by the lay public.

    With a tick in the box and a sense from regulators and vaccine makers that they’ve successfully negotiated the hurdle of ADE/VAH risks, there’s been no further discussion of the issue. The vast majority of pre-vaccinees lining up as part of the global mass vaccination roll out simply have no idea of the risk — because they’re not being told.’

    ‘Immunization with SARS Coronavirus Vaccines Leads to Pulmonary Immunopathology on Challenge with the SARS Virus’

    ‘Caution in proceeding to application of a SARS-CoV vaccine in humans is indicated.’

  9. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    ‘….anyone with an inflammatory disease, like rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, chronic Lyme disease, anybody with an acquired immune deficiency from any pathogens and environmental toxins.

    Those are the people who will be killed, murdered, by this vaccine…’

    ‘….others who are at high risk from these COVID-19 gene therapies include those who have gotten seasonal influenza vaccines, Blacks and Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics are particularly at risk for antibody-dependent immune enhancement, in particular, due to genetics. Tragically, these vaccines are given to the most susceptible under the guise of racial and social justice.’

    ‘….the World Health Organization is now saying pregnant women should not get the Moderna or Pfizer vaccines due to reports of late-term miscarriages…’

    Also read in this article about what to do if you got the vaccine and are having problems.

  10. Being our own advocates in this society is a daunting task, second only to advocating for our family/children.

    Speaking from years of health issues related to autoimmune issues, allergies, and the accompanying health problems, I know that many in the medical field are ignorant of whole health. Unfortunately, they are out of their element when it comes to many of the ailments that plague our population.

    With the growing number of infections from tick-borne disease, chemical exposure, medicine-induced illness, and the myriad other issues reducing the health of the population, it seems nearly impossible for a physician to “heal” a patient.

    Now, adding to the confusion, we have Covid and the ridiculous policies governing testing and treating, and the co-called vaccine. The population is not ready for the vaccine, we are not fully informed, we do not understand how this shot/series of shots will impact our health, long-term. Despite the numerous studies demonstrating a lack of evidence that these vaccines are safe, never mind able to illicit a proper immure response resulting in immunity to anything, we are plunging ahead. Everyone and their grandmother will be getting these vaccines, possibly mandated to do so, regardless of one’s health profile, genetic makeup, etc.

    This year we will see in real time how medicine has been manipulated, distorted, and perverted for the profit of corporations and government control of the population. In the years to come autoimmunity will skyrocket, longevity decrease, and mental illness increase. These ramifications are the result of a society of uniformed consumers.

    I pray we are given the choice to be simply observers.

  11. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    ‘The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to permit the emergency use of the unapproved product, MODERNA COVID-19 VACCINE,..’

    There is no information on the co-administration of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine with other vaccines.’

    See Fact-sheet-providers-Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.pdf

    ‘The Moderna COVID?19 Vaccine has not been approved or licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but has been authorized for emergency use by FDA, under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), to prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID?19) for use in individuals 18 years of age and older. There is no FDA-approved vaccine to prevent COVID?19.’


    ‘The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to permit the emergency use of the unapproved product, Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 in individuals 16 years of age and older.’

    ‘Use with Other Vaccines
    There is no information on the co-administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine with other vaccines.’

    There is no approved alternative vaccine to prevent COVID-19. There may be clinical trials or availability under EUA of other COVID-19 vaccines.’

    ‘Global Information About Pfizer?BioNTech COVID?19 Vaccine (also known as BNT162b2)

    The approval status of the Pfizer?BioNTech COVID?19 Vaccine varies worldwide. In countries where the vaccine has not been approved by the relevant regulatory authority, it is an investigational drug, and its safety and efficacy have not been established.’

    United States

    ‘The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine has not been approved or licensed by FDA, but has been authorised for emergency use by FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization to prevent Corona Virus Disease 2019 COVID-19 for use in individuals 16 years of age and older. The emergency use of this product is only authorized for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of the medical product under Section 564(b)(1) of the FD&C Act unless the declaration is terminated or authorization revoked sooner.’

    ‘The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19Vaccine may not protect all vaccine recipients

    In clinical studies, adverse reactions in participants 16 years of age and older included pain at the injection site (84.1%), fatigue (62.9%), headache (55.1%), muscle pain (38.3%), chills (31.9%), joint pain (23.6%), fever (14.2%), injection site swelling (10.5%), injection site redness (9.5%), nausea (1.1%), malaise (0.5%), and lymphadenopathy (0.3%)

    Severe allergic reactions have been reported following the Pfizer-BioNTechCOVID-19 Vaccine during mass vaccination outside of clinical trials. Additional adverse reactions, some of which may be serious, may become apparent with more widespread use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine’

  12. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    The inbuilt links to the Analysis and the Form within the following Docs4OpenDebate document failed to display when posted earlier.
    Please see links to the Analysis and the Form below.

    Here you will find an analysis of the covid-19 vaccines approved in Belgium with regard to their side effects and efficacy, and of the physician’s liability. This document is addressed to medical doctors, but also provides you with all the information available on this moment.
    And here is a form that you can submit to the doctor administering the vaccine for signature after he or she has read the first document. Both documents therefore belong together.

    Note the ‘Analysis’ and the ‘Form’ are a joint document.

    Docs4OpenDebate Analysis

    Docs4OpenDebate Form for signing by doctors administering the covid vaccines

  13. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    ‘There are many studies that demonstrate that ADE is a persistent problem with coronaviruses in general, and in particular, with SARS-related viruses. ADE has proven to be a serious challenge with coronavirus vaccines, and this is the primary reason many of such vaccines have failed in early in-vitro or animal trials.’ (Docs4opendebate 28th January 2021)

    Here you will find an analysis of the covid-19 vaccines approved in Belgium with regard to their side effects and efficacy, and of the physician’s liability. This document is addressed to medical doctors, but also provides you with all the information available on this moment.
    And here is a form that you can submit to the doctor administering the vaccine for signature after he or she has read the first document. Both documents therefore belong together. (Docs4openbate)

    ‘Earlier this month, Dr. Anthony Fauci, chief White House COVID-19 medical advisor, advised people already confirmed to have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 not to get vaccinated within three months of getting the virus. His recommendations have been challenged by other officials, who have said that people can be vaccinated as soon as a vaccine becomes available.’

    ‘Dr. Fauci says he believes waiting the 90 days would prevent interference between natural antibodies and the vaccine.’

    ‘When it comes to the new vaccines, Dr. Merrit, former president of the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) and former military doctor who studied biological warfare, goes through previous animal studies on the technology and paints a dire picture. However, even though modern medical schools do not often teach it, there are ways to treat viral infections that are time-tested and effective, she concludes.’
    Download video here:

    Ask The Experts (Covid-19 Vaccine)

    Make sure you’re sitting down to watch this and that you have a rescue remedy to hand. Examining the “10 Stages of Genocide” created by the American genocide scholar Gregory H Stanton, we come to see the horrific conditions from the past dictatorships reflected right in front of our faces. We are on a path to global genocide.

  14. Thank you for this article, Calvin!

    I have been having a mental debate for a couple weeks about taking the COVID-19 vaccine or not. I have leaned on the side of caution, waiting to see what issues arise from this inoculation.

    This article makes me believe that, perhaps, I am making the right decision to hold off from taking this vaccine.

    Ya know…I can usually deal with misinformation with a bit of armchair research. However, no easily attainable or non-conveyance of information from our elected officials or medical community just pisses me off.

    So, again, thank you for your research and keeping me “in the loop.” I will pass this along to some friends and family.



  15. Carmel McCormack (Ireland)

    Have you noticed how so many deaths have been registered on death certificates as having been caused by COVID-19, yet many of the deaths following COVID-19 vaccines are explained away as old age by virtue that the person vaccinated had reached or gone beyond life expectancy, or the deaths were caused by existing, serious co-morbidities, or the cause was COVID-19, or that the deaths were merely a coincidence?

    Robert F. Kennedy recently said something along the lines that there are now far too many coincidences for it to be put down purely to coincidence!

  16. Great articles! Thank you. We must be an informed public to make sound personal health choices. More now than ever; it is scary and dangerous that “facts” depend on the agenda being driven.

    Funny how temporal associations are always considered “proof” and causal, never a coincidence regarding AGW (Anthropogenic Global Warming)–fossil fuels, CO2, increased global temps–even though there are too many known and unknown variables to honestly make that unequivocal assumption.

    But in reverse and in sharp contrast, temporal associations between vaccination and side effects are almost never considered causal but coincidental.

    It’s concerning that the AMA reports that only 1% of adverse vaccine reactions get reported. How can a true benefit/risk ratio be established with under-reporting?

    When my perfectly healthy infant son had an (afebrile) seizure 6 hours after his 1st vaccine series, the doctor refused to believe it was from the vaccines. I had to report it to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) myself. My son’s neurologist said he should never have another DPT vaccination. My son’s kindly but misinformed pediatrician still wanted him to receive another DPT vaccination. (I said, “Over my dead body!”) Several years later, the original whole-cell DPT version was pulled from the market due to many neurological side effects, and replaced with the current acellular DPT vaccine.

    As a registered nurse for almost forty years, I often witnessed the hospital’s medical community deny the most obvious drug-induced side effects. Their answer was usually NOT to discontinue or substitute for the problem drug, but to add more.

    One of the reasons I wanted out of nursing is that I did not want to be part of that sickness-inducing culture, but sought prevention-oriented and a more holistic approach to healthcare. I started to feel like I was poisoning people instead of actually helping or getting to the root problem and promoting good health.

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